Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice

Here we are going to discuss Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice as per international standard IEEE STD 802.11 with ISM band for Industry. This Protocol DLMS COSEM Protocol and Zigbee Network Wireless will discussed how we can implement.

Main points to be discussed in this article are 

IEEE STD 802.11, ISM band for Industry, DLMS COSEM Protocol, Zigbee Network Wireless.

Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice

Wireless Communications Considerations (Appendix A)

Many of the wireless communications solutions developed within the Smart Metering industry so far, which could be leveraged within the WAN (and potentially for the NANs and HANs) of an AMI pilot, are designed for operation in the 2.4-2.4835 GHz frequency band.

Generally, such communications adhere to IEEE STD 802.11. It should be noted that in most countries this portion of the spectrum is considered to be an ISM band. The use of ISM bands is reserved internationally for Industrial, Scientific and Medical purposes, rather than for commercial applications. The unrestricted use of higher powered applications, e.g., radar, within ISM allocated bands can introduce electromagnetic interference within other RF devices operating in that range.

Thus, non-ISM equipment must be able to tolerate interference produced by ISM equipment as they are not protected by the regulatory framework from ISM device operation.

For KSA, international standardization in this area does not apply and frequency bands for ISM use have yet to be allocated. Private usage (i.e., contained within residential and commercial premises) of this band within WLANs is exempt from carrier licensing.

Short range devices (SRDs) are free to operate within the 2.4-2.4835 GHz band and are license exempted, provided that transmitters adhere to the relevant CITC ( Communications and Information Technology Commission) Guidelines, otherwise frequency assignment should be obtained. Transmitters operating in this range are limited to an Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP), i.e., power emitted by the antennae, of 100 mW or less (Table 6). For any Industrial and Plant Project this is Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice article.

Table 6 – Technical Specifications and Approved Frequencies by CITC

Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice

Outdoor usage of the 2.4 GHz band is permitted but only within the confines of Plants facilities and compounds. The use of other, licensed frequency bands could be pursued as an alternative measure but this would require sourcing bandwidth from a third party, licensed telecoms carrier provider and could prove exorbitant.

Thus, under current regulations it is unlikely that RF wireless communications for a KSA-wide WAN would be feasible, unless specific dispensation was granted by CITC. This aspect of any deployment could be problematic in achieving the aims of initiating a KSA-wide smart metering deployment, i.e., the scope focused pilot to “Lead By Example” across KSA is limited if wireless communications are pursued.

Technical Conventions (Appendix B )

The IEC convention for the direction of power flows is shown:

IEEE STD 802.11, ISM band for Industry, DLMS COSEM Protocol, Zigbee Network Wireless

Figure 7 – IEC Convention for Customer Energy Imports and Exports

DLMS / COSEM Protocol (Appendix C)

The DLMS / COSEM protocol (IEC 62056-62, 53) is a very versatile protocol that can be used across many transport layers (PLC, TCP/IP, GSM/GPRS, etc.). Development is also underway to adapt this protocol for use across ZigBee networks. One should note that outdoor ZigBee networks are already being utilized.

Consolidation is already under way in the PLC space towards the DLMS / COSEM standard, with efforts being made to adapt OSGP, used within the largest smart meter roll-out world-wide to data, in Italy for future compatibility with DLMS / COSEM. It appears that DLMS / COSEM will be the winning LAN or NAN protocol (in PLC networks) in the long-run. Many HES offered by leading vendors specify DLMS / COSEM as the de-facto communications standard.

All article related to Smart Metering Technology are linked below step by step.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure | Smart Metering Technology

Advanced Metering Infrastructure Functionality – AMI Functions

Advanced Metering Infrastructure System Design Architecture

Advanced Metering Infrastructure Components

Advanced Metering Infrastructure Functional Requirements

Domestic Smart Meter Installation – ANSI 12.20 Electricity Meters

Data Concentrator Unit | DCU Principle with Technical Specification

Head End System for Advance Metering Infrastructure

Meter Data Management System – IEC 61968-9

Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice


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  1. May 27, 2020

    […] Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice […]

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    […] Wireless Communications Principles and Industrial Practice […]

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